Wim Kimmerer

Wim Kimmerer

Adjunct Professor Emeritus, Biology
Biological Oceanography
Phone: (415) 338-3515
Email: kimmerer@sfsu.edu

Kimmerer Lab Website


My research interests are topically broad but mostly focused on the San Francisco Estuary, with a general theme of understanding success of small pelagic organisms in a geographically heterogeneous environment with varying freshwater input, strong tides, and abundant introduced species and predators. In recent years my lab and I have examined: how variation in freshwater flow moves the salinity gradient and how that in turn influences abundance of zooplankton and of fish species, notably longfin smelt; population dynamics of key zooplankton species, including the effects of food limitation on reproduction and growth and the effects of predation on mortality and distribution; the planktonic food web supporting longfin smelt, delta smelt, and other fishes of the upper Estuary; modeling the declining delta smelt population; effects of species introductions to the estuary; wetlands as habitat for planktonic organisms; and the management implications of our findings.

My laboratory works mainly with copepods, arguably the most abundant animal on Earth and, for their body size, one of the fastest. Studying them requires understanding dynamics of their food (phytoplankton, microzooplankton) and predators (fish, macroinvertebrates, zooplankton). The laboratory is run by my two Research Associates, Toni Ignoffo and Anne Slaughter. Methods applied in this work include field studies, laboratory experiments, statistical and simulation modeling, and analysis of a great wealth of long-term monitoring data to provide context for our results.

An important component of this work is the link between hydrodynamics and foodweb processes, examined through collaborations with modeling experts, notably Dr. Edward Gross of RMA, Inc. and Dr. Kenneth Rose of the University of Maryland. In addition, we collaborate with Dr. Michelle Jungbluth of EOS to incorporate her DNA-based investigations into broader studies of foodweb dynamics. Other long-term collaborators include scientists at various universities, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and private firms, and scientists and managers at state and federal agencies working at the intersection of water supply and ecological conditions in the estuary.

Our work is largely funded as applied research, but each project is viewed through both an applied and a fundamental lens. Our project managers understand and appreciate that our students, research associates, and I will publish papers that address the more basic scientific questions, while providing the insights needed for the applied problem being addressed.

Generally we host graduate students who work toward Master’s degrees through the EOS Center’s Interdisciplinary Marine and Estuarine Science (IMES) program. Their projects are usually set up to contribute to requirements of our current grants, and to develop results that are publishable in the scientific literature. Although the students are responsible for seeing their projects to completion including publication, every effort in the lab is a team effort and all members are expected to work as part of the team. Students graduating from our lab usually find employment regionally in government agencies or private firms, or go on for PhDs.


Selected Papers­


  • Yelton, R., A.M. Slaughter, and W.J. Kimmerer. Diel behaviors of zooplankton interact with tidal patterns to drive spatial subsidies in the northern San Francisco Estuary. In press, Estuaries and Coasts.
  • Holmes, A.E. and W.J. Kimmerer. In situ prey identification in an abundant estuarine copepod using DNA metabarcoding. In press, Journal of Plankton Research.
  • Jungbluth, M., J. Burns, L. Grimaldo, A. Slaughter, A. Katla, and W. Kimmerer. 2021. Feeding habits and novel prey of larval fishes in the northern San Francisco Estuary.  Environmental DNA, September 2021. doi:10.1002/edn3.226
  • Kimmerer, W.J. and A.M. Slaughter. 2021. A new electivity index for diet studies that use count data. Limnology and Oceanography Methods, May 2021. doi 10.1002/lom3.10446
  • Gearty, A.J., T.R. Ignoffo, A.M. Slaughter, and W.J. Kimmerer. 2021. Growth and reproductive rates of the dominant copepod Pseudodiaptomus forbesi in response to environmental factors and habitat type in the northern San Francisco Estuary. Aquatic Ecology 55:825–828.  doi 10.1007/s10452-021-09863-4
  • Jungbluth, M.,  T. Ignoffo, C. Lee, M. Jungbluth, C. Patel, B. Bergamaschi, and W. Kimmerer. 2020. Production of the copepod Pseudodiaptomus forbesi is not enhanced by ingestion of the diatom Aulacoseira granulata during a bloom. Estuaries and Coasts 44(4), 1083-1099, doi:10.1007/s12237-020-00843-9
  • Owens, S., W.J. Kimmerer, T.R. Ignoffo, J. Frantzich, and A. Slaughter. 2019. High growth rates of a dominant calanoid copepod in the northern San Francisco Estuary. Journal of Plankton Research 41:939–954. doi: 10.1093/plankt/fbz064
  • Kimmerer, W., F. Wilkerson, B. Downing, R. Dugdale, E. S. Gross, K. Kayfetz, S. Khanna, A. E. Parker, and J. Thompson. 2019. Effects of drought and the emergency drought barrier on the ecosystem of the California Delta. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 17(3).
  • Kimmerer, W.J., E.S. Gross, A.M. Slaughter, and J.R. Durand. 2019. Spatial subsidies and local mortality of an estuarine copepod revealed using a box model. Estuaries and Coasts 42:218-236. doi: 10.1007/s12237-018-0436-1
  • Kimmerer, W.J., T.R. Ignoffo, B. Bemowski, J. Moderan, A. Holmes, and B. Bergamaschi.  2018. Zooplankton dynamics in the Cache Slough complex of the upper San Francisco Estuary. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 16(3) Art. 4. doi:10.15447/sfews.2018v16iss3art4
  • Ger, K.A., T.G. Otten, T. Ignoffo, and W. Kimmerer.  2018. In-situ ingestion of Microcystis is related to bloom intensity and copepod abundance in the upper San Francisco Estuary. Limnology and Oceanography 63:2394-2410. doi: 10.1002/lno.10946
  • Ohtsuka, S., T. Shimono, T. Hanyuda, X. Shang, C. Huang, H. Y. Soh, W. Kimmerer, H. Kawai, H. Itoh, T. Ishimaru, and K. Tomikawa. 2018. Possible origins of planktonic copepods, Pseudodiaptomus marinus (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida), introduced from East Asia to the San Francisco Estuary based on a molecular analysis.  Aquat. Invasions 13:221-230. doi: 10.3391/ai.2018.13.2.04
  • Kimmerer WJ, Rose KA. 2018. Individual-based modeling of delta smelt population dynamics in the upper San Francisco Estuary III. Effects of entrainment mortality and changes in prey. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 147(1):223-243. doi: 10.1002/tafs.10015
  • Kimmerer, W.J., T.R. Ignoffo, K.R. Kayfetz, and A.M. Slaughter.  2017. Effects of freshwater flow and phytoplankton biomass on growth, reproduction, and spatial subsidies of the estuarine copepod Pseudodiaptomus forbesi.  Hydrobiologia 804:113-130. doi: 10.1007/s10750-017-3385-y.
  • Kayfetz, K. and W. Kimmerer.  2017. Abiotic and biotic controls on the copepod Pseudodiaptomus forbesi in the upper San Francisco Estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series 581:85-101. Doi: 10.3354/meps12294
  • Otten, T. G., H. Paerl, T. Dreher, W. Kimmerer, and A. Parker. 2017. The molecular ecology of Microcystis sp. blooms in the San Francisco Estuary. Environmental Microbiology and Environmental Microbiology Reports 19: 3619–3637. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.13860.
  • Kimmerer, W. and A. Slaughter.  2016.  Fine-scale distributions of zooplankton in the northern San Francisco Estuary.  San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 14 (3). Doi:10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss3art2
  • Brown, L.R., W. Kimmerer, J.L. Conrad, S. Lesmeister, and A. Mueller-Solger.  2016.  Food webs of the Delta, Suisun Bay and Suisun Marsh: an update on current understanding and possibilities for management. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 14(3).  Doi: 10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss3art4
  • Sullivan, L.J., T.R. Ignoffo, B. Baskerville-Bridges, D. J. Ostrach, and W.J. Kimmerer. 2016. Prey selection of larval and juvenile planktivorous fish: impacts of introduced prey. Environmental Biology of Fishes 99: 633-646. doi:10.1007/s10641-016-0505-x
  • Slaughter, A.M., T.R. Ignoffo, and W.J. Kimmerer.  2016. Predation impact of Acartiella sinensis, an introduced predatory copepod in the San Francisco Estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series 547: 47–60. Doi: 10.3354/meps11640
  • Kimmerer, W.J. and L. Lougee.  2015.  Bivalve grazing causes substantial mortality to an estuarine copepod population.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 473: 53-63.  doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2015.08.005. 
  • Kimmerer, W.J.  2015.  Mortality estimates of stage-structured populations must include uncertainty in stage duration and relative abundance. Journal of Plankton Research  37 (5): 939-952.  doi:10.1093/plankt/fbv073.
  • MacWilliams, M.L., E.S. Gross, and W.J. Kimmerer.  2015.  Three-dimensional modeling of hydrodynamics and salinity in the San Francisco Estuary: An evaluation of model accuracy, X2, and the Low-Salinity Zone.  San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 13(1) Article 2. Doi: 10.15447/sfews.2015v13iss1art2
  • Mount, J., W. Fleenor, B. Gray, B. Herbold, and W. Kimmerer.  2014.  The draft Bay-Delta Conservation Plan: Assessment of environmental performance and governance.  Hastings West Northwest Journal of Environmental Law and Policy 20:245-373.
  • Kratina, P., R. Mac Nally, W. J. Kimmerer, J. R. Thomson, and M. Winder. 2014. Human-induced biotic invasions and changes in plankton interaction networks. Journal of Applied Ecologydoi:10.1111/1365-2664.12266
  • Kimmerer, W. J., E. S. Gross, and M. L. MacWilliams. 2014. Tidal migration and retention of estuarine zooplankton investigated using a particle-tracking model. Limnol. Oceanogr. 59: 901-906. Doi: 10.4319/lo.2014.59.3.0901
  • Kimmerer, W. J., and J. K. Thompson. 2014. Phytoplankton growth balanced by clam and zooplankton grazing and net transport into the low-salinity zone of the San Francisco Estuary. Estuaries and Coasts. 37:1202-1218. Doi: 10.1007/s12237-013-9753-6
  • Kimmerer, W.J., T.R. Ignoffo, A.M. Slaughter, and A. L. Gould.  2014. Food-limited reproduction and growth of three copepod species in the low-salinity zone of the San Francisco Estuary.  Journal of Plankton Research 36: 722-735   doi:10.1093/plankt/fbt128.
  • Herbold, B., D.M. Baltz, L. Brown, R. Grossinger, W. Kimmerer, P. Lehman, P.B. Moyle, M. Nobriga, and C.A Simenstad.  2014.  The role of tidal marsh restoration in fish management of the San Francisco Estuary.  San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 12(1) Article 1.  Doi: 10.15447/sfews.2014v12iss1art1
  • Craig, C., W.J. Kimmerer, and C.S. Cohen.  2013.  A DNA-based method for investigating feeding by copepod nauplii.  Journal of Plankton Research 36: 271-275  doi 10.1093/plankt/fbt104.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., M.L. MacWilliams, and E.S. Gross.  2013.  Variation of fish habitat and extent of the low-salinity zone with freshwater flow in the San Francisco Estuary.  San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 11(4).  http://escholarship.org/uc/item/3pz7x1x8
  • York, J.K., G.B. McManus, W.J. Kimmerer, A.M. Slaughter, and T.R. Ignoffo.  2013. Trophic Links in the plankton in the low salinity zone of a large temperate estuary: Top-down effects of introduced copepods.  Estuaries and Coasts 37: 576-588. Doi:10.1007/s12237-013-9698-9
  • Vogt, R.A., T.R. Ignoffo, L.J. Sullivan, J. Herndon, J.H. Stillman, and W. Kimmerer. 2013. Feeding capabilities and limitations in the nauplii of two pelagic estuarine copepods, Pseudodiaptomus marinus and Oithona davisae.  Limnology and Oceanography 58: 2145-2157. Doi: 10.4319/lo.2013.58.6.2145
  • Rose, K. A., W. J. Kimmerer, K. P. Edwards, and W. A. Bennett. 2013. Individual-based modeling of delta smelt population dynamics in the upper San Francisco Estuary.  I. Model Description and Baseline Results. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 142: 1238-1259. https://doi.org/10.1080/00028487.2013.799518
  • Rose, K. A., W. J. Kimmerer, K. P. Edwards, and W. A. Bennett. 2013. Individual-based modeling of delta smelt population dynamics in the upper San Francisco Estuary.  II.  Alternative baselines and good versus bad years. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 142: 1260-1272. https://doi.org/10.1080/00028487.2013.799519
  • Sullivan, L.J. and W.J. Kimmerer.  2013. Egg development times of Eurytemora affinis and Pseudodiaptomus forbesi (Copepoda, Calanoida) from the upper San Francisco Estuary with notes on methods.  Journal of Plankton Research 35: 1331-1338. Doi:10.1093/plankt/fbt076
  • Kimmerer, W.J. and M.J. Weaver.  2013.  Vulnerability of Estuaries to Climate Change.  Climate Vulnerability, R. Pielke (Ed.), Elsevier, San Diego.
  • Kimmerer, W. J., A. E. Parker, U. Lidström, and E. J. Carpenter. 2012. Short-term and interannual variability in primary production in the low-salinity zone of the San Francisco Estuary. Estuaries Coast 35: 913-929. Doi: 10.1007/s12237-012-9482-2
  • Parker, A., W. Kimmerer, and U. Lidström. 2012.  Reevaluating the generality of an empirical model for light-limited primary production in the San Francisco Estuary. Estuaries Coast 35: 930-942. Doi: 10.1007/s12237-012-9507-x
  • Cloern, J.E., A.D. Jassby, J. Carstensen, W.A. Bennett, W. Kimmerer, R. Mac Nally, D.H. Schoellhamer, M. Winder.  2012.  Perils of correlating CUSUM-transformed variables to infer ecological relationships (Breton et al. 2006; Glibert 2010).  Limnol. Oceanogr. 57:: 665-668. doi:10.4319/lo.2012.57.2.0665
  • Kimmerer, W. J. 2011. Modeling delta smelt losses at the south Delta export facilities. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 9: Article 2. Doi:10.15447/sfews.2011v9iss1art3
  • Greene, V.E., L. J. Sullivan, J.K. Thompson, and W.J. Kimmerer.  2011.  Grazing impact of the invasive clam Corbula amurensis on the microplankton assemblage of the northern San Francisco Estuary.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 431:183–193. Doi:10.3354/meps09099
  • Paganini, A., W.J. Kimmerer, and J.H. Stillman.  2010.  Metabolic responses to environmental salinity in the invasive clam Corbula amurensis. Aquatic Biology 11:139-147. Doi:10.3354/ab00304
  • Gould, A.L. and Kimmerer, W.J., 2010. Development, growth, and reproduction of the cyclopoid copepod Limnoithona tetraspina in the upper San Francisco Estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 412:163-177. Doi: 10.3354/meps08650
  • Kimmerer, W. and Gould, A.  2010.  A Bayesian approach to estimating copepod development times from stage frequency data. Limnology and Oceanography-Methods, 8:118-126.
  • Mac Nally, R., Thomson, J., Kimmerer, W., Feyrer, F., Newman, K., Sih, A., Bennett, W., Brown, L., Fleishman, E., Culberson, S. and Castillo, G., 2010. An analysis of pelagic species decline in the upper San Francisco Estuary using Multivariate Autoregressive modelling (MAR). Ecological Applications, 20:1417-1430.
  • Thomson, J., Kimmerer, W., Brown, L., Newman, K., Mac Nally, R., Bennett, W., Feyrer, F. and Fleishman, E., 2010. Bayesian change-point analysis of abundance trends for pelagic fishes in the upper San Francisco Estuary. Ecological Applications, 1431 -1448:1431 -1448.
  • Choi, K.-H. and Kimmerer, W.J., 2009. Mating success and its consequences for population growth of an estuarine copepod. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 377:183-191.
  • Grimaldo, L.F., Stewart, A.R. and Kimmerer, W., 2009. Dietary segregation of pelagic and littoral fish assemblages in a highly modified tidal freshwater estuary. Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science, 1:200-217.
  • Gross, E.S., MacWilliams, M.L. and Kimmerer, W.J., 2009. Three-dimensional modeling of tidal hydrodynamics in the San Francisco Estuary. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science (Online Serial), 7.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., Gross, E.S. and MacWilliams, M., 2009. Is the response of estuarine nekton to freshwater flow in the San Francisco Estuary explained by variation in habitat volume? Estuaries and Coasts, 32:375-389.
  • Brown, L.R., Kimmerer, W. and Brown, R., 2008. Managing water to protect fish: a review of California's Environmental Water Account. Environmental Management, 43:357-368.
  • Choi, K.-H. and Kimmerer, W.J., 2008. Mate limitation in an estuarine population of copepods. Limnology and Oceanography, 43:1656-1664.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., 2008. Losses of Sacramento River Chinook salmon and delta smelt to entrainment in water diversions in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science, 6:Issue 2 Article 2.
  • Kimmerer, W.J. and Nobriga, M.N., 2008. Investigating particle transport and fate in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta using a particle tracking model. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science, 6:Issue 1 Article 4.
  • Kondolf, G.M., Angermeier, P., Cummins, K., Dunne, T., Healey, M., Kimmerer, W., Moyle, P.B., Murphy, D., Patten, D., Railsback, S., Reed, D., Spies, R. and Twiss, R., 2008. Projecting Cumulative Benefits of Multiple River Restoration Projects: An Example From the Sacramento-San Joaquin River System in California. Environmental Management, 42:933-945.
  • McManus, G.B., York, J.K. and Kimmerer, W.J., 2008. Microzooplankton dynamics in the low salinity zone of the San Francisco Estuary. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 30:196-202.
  • Ohtsuka, S., Otani, M., Soh, H.Y., Kim, M., Lee, W., Huang, C., Kimmerer, W.J., Shimono, T., Hanyuda, T., Kawai, H., Ueda, H. and Yamaguchi, A., 2008. Relationships between presence or absence of non-indigenous copepods and ballast water at some international ports of Japan. Bulletin of the Plankton Society of Japan, 55:115-126.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., Hirst, A.G., Hopcroft, R.R. and McKinnon, A.D., 2007. Estimating juvenile copepod growth rates: corrections, inter-comparisons and recommendations. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 336:187-202.
  • Sommer, T., Armor, C., Baxter, R., Breuer, R., Brown, L., Chotkowski, M., Culberson, S., Feyrer, F., Gingras, M., Herbold, B., Kimmerer, W., Mueller Solger, A., Nobriga, M. and Souza, K., 2007. The collapse of pelagic fishes in the upper San Francisco Estuary. Fisheries, 32:270-277.
  • Bouley, P. and Kimmerer, W.J., 2006. Ecology of a highly abundant, introduced cyclopoid copepod in a temperate estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 324:219-228.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., 2006. Response of anchovies dampens effects of the invasive bivalve Corbula amurensis on the San Francisco Estuary foodweb. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 324:207-218.
  • Choi, K.H., Kimmerer, W., Smith, G., Ruiz, G.M. and Lion, K., 2005. Post-exchange zooplankton in ballast water of ships entering the San Francisco Estuary. Journal of Plankton Research, 27:707-714.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., Avent, S.R., Bollens, S.M., Moyle, P.B., Nobriga, M. and Visintainer, T., 2005. Variability in length-weight relationships used to estimate biomass of estuarine fishes from survey data. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 134:481–495.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., 2005. Long-term changes in apparent uptake of silica in the San Francisco estuary. Limnology and Oceanography, 50:793-798.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., Nicolini, M.H., Ferm, N. and Peñalva, C., 2005. Chronic food limitation of egg production in populations of copepods of the genus Acartia in the San Francisco Estuary. Estuaries, 28:541–550.
  • Kimmerer, W., Murphy, D. and Angermeier, P., 2005. A landscape-level model of the San Francisco Estuary and its watershed. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science (Online Serial), 3:Article 2.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., 2004. Open water processes of the San Francisco Estuary: From physical forcing to biological responses. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science (Online Serial), 2:Issue 1, Article 1.  http://repositories.cdlib.org/jmie/sfews/vol2/iss1/art1.
  • Sommer, T.R., Harrell, W.C., Mueller Solger, A., Tom, B. and Kimmerer, W., 2004. Effects of flow variation on channel and floodplain biota and habitats of the Sacramento River, California, USA. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 14:241-267.
  • Bennett, W.A., Kimmerer, W.J. and Burau, J.R., 2002. Plasticity in vertical migration by native and exotic estuarine fishes in a dynamic low-salinity zone. Limnology and Oceanography, 47:1496–1507.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., Bennett, W.A. and Burau, J.R., 2002. Persistence of tidally-oriented vertical migration by zooplankton in a temperate estuary. Estuaries, 25:359-371.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., 2002. Effects of freshwater flow on abundance of estuarine organisms: physical effects or trophic linkages? Marine Ecology Progress Series, 243:39-55. doi:10.3354/meps243039
  • Kimmerer, W.J., 2002. Physical, biological, and management responses to variable freshwater flow into the San Francisco Estuary. Estuaries, 25:1275-1290.
  • Monismith, S.G., Kimmerer, W.J., Burau, J.R. and Stacey, M.T., 2002. Structure and flow-induced variability of the subtidal salinity field in northern San Francisco Bay. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 32:3003-3019.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., Cowan, J.H., Miller, L.W. and Rose, K.A., 2001. Analysis of an estuarine striped bass population: Effects of environmental conditions during early life. Estuaries, 24:556-574.
  • Sommer, T.R., Nobriga, M., Harrell, B., Batham, W. and Kimmerer, W.J., 2001. Floodplain rearing of juvenile chinook salmon:  evidence of enhanced growth and survival. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 58:325-333.
  • Sommer, T., Harrell, B., Nobriga, M., Brown, R., Moyle, P., Kimmerer, W. and Schemel, L., 2001. California's Yolo Bypass: Evidence that flood control can be compatible with fisheries, wetlands, wildlife, and agriculture. Fisheries, 26:6-16.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., Cowan, J.H., Jr., Miller, L.W. and Rose, K.A., 2000. Analysis of an estuarine striped bass population:  Influence of density-dependent mortality between metamorphosis and recruitment. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57:478-486.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., Burau, J.R. and Bennett, W.A., 1998. Tidally-oriented vertical migration and position maintenance of zooplankton in a temperate estuary. Limnology and Oceanography, 43:1697-1709.
  • Kimmerer, W.J. and Orsi, J.J., 1996. Causes of long-term declines in zooplankton in the San Francisco Bay estuary since 1987. In: J.T. Hollibaugh (Editor), San Francisco Bay: The Ecosystem. AAAS, San Francisco, pp. 403-424.
  • Jassby, A.D., Kimmerer, W.J., Monismith, S.G., Armor, C., Cloern, J.E., Powell, T.M., Schubel, J.R. and Vendlinski, T.J., 1995. Isohaline position as a habitat indicator for estuarine populations. Ecological Applications, 5:272-289.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., Gartside, E. and Orsi, J.J., 1994. Predation by an introduced clam as the probable cause of substantial declines in zooplankton in San Francisco Bay. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 113:81-93.
  • Peterson, W.T. and Kimmerer, W.J., 1994. Processes controlling recruitment of the marine calanoid copepod Temora longicornis in Long Island Sound: Egg production, egg mortality, and cohort survival rates. Limnology and Oceanography, 39:1594-1605.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., 1993. Distribution patterns of zooplankton in Tomales Bay, California. Estuaries, 16:264-272.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., Smith, S.V. and Hollibaugh, J.T., 1993. A simple heuristic model of nutrient cycling in an estuary. Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf Science, 37:145-149.
  • McKinnon, A.D., Kimmerer, W.J. and Benzie, J.A.H., 1992. Sympatric sibling species within the genus Acartia (Copepoda: Calanoida): a case study from Westernport and Port Phillip Bays, Australia. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 12:239-259.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., 1991. Predatory influences on copepod distributions in coastal waters. In: S.-I. Uye, S. Nishida and J.-S. Ho (Editor), Proceedings of the fourth international conference on Copepoda. Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan, Spec. Vol., Hiroshima, pp. 161-174.
  • Kimmerer, W.J. and McKinnon, A.D., 1990. High Mortality in a Copepod Population Caused by a Parasitic Dinoflagellate. Marine Biology, 107:449-452.
  • Kimmerer, W.J. and McKinnon, A.D., 1989. Zooplankton in a marine bay.   III.  Evidence for influence of vertebrate predation on distributions of two common copepods. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 53:21-35.
  • Jagger, R.A., Kimmerer, W.J. and Jenkins, G.P., 1988. Food of the cladoceran Podon intermedius in a marine embayment. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 43:245-250.
  • Kimmerer, W.J. and McKinnon, A.D., 1987. Growth, mortality, and secondary production of the copepod Acartia tranteri in Westernport Bay, Australia. Limnology and Oceanography, 32:14-28.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., 1987. The theory of secondary production calculations for continuously reproducing populations. Limnology and Oceanography, 32:1-13.
  • Kimmerer, W.J. and McKinnon, A.D., 1987. Zooplankton in a marine bay. I. Horizontal distributions used to estimate net population growth rates. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 41:43-52.
  • Kimmerer, W.J. and McKinnon, A.D., 1987. Zooplankton in a marine bay. II. Vertical migration to maintain horizontal distributions. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 41:53-60.
  • Kimmerer, W.J. and McKinnon, A.D., 1986. Glutaraldehyde fixation to maintain biomass of preserved plankton. Journal of Plankton Research, 5:1003-1008.
  • Smith, S.V., Kimmerer, W.J. and Walsh, T.W., 1986. Vertical flux and biogeochemical turnover regulate nutrient limitation of net organic production in the North Pacific Gyre. Limnology and Oceanography, 31:161-167.
  • Fancett, M.S. and Kimmerer, W.J., 1985. Vertical migration of the demersal copepod Pseudodiaptomus as a means of predator avoidance. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 88:31-43.
  • Kimmerer, W.J. and McKinnon, A.D., 1985. A comparative study of the zooplankton in two adjacent embayments, Port Phillip and Westernport Bay, Australia. Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf Science, 21:145-159.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., McKinnon, A.D., Atkinson, M.J. and Kessell, J.A., 1985. Spatial patterns of plankton in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 36:421-432.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., 1984. Spatial and temporal variability in egg production rates of the calanoid copepod Acrocalanus inermis. Marine Biology, 78:165-169.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., 1984. Selective predation and its impact on prey of Sagitta enflata (Chaetognatha) in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 15:55-62.
  • Kimmerer, W.J., 1984. Diversity/stability - a criticism. Ecology, 65:1936-1938.
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